JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ

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Born:November 12, 1651?Mexico...(Show more)Died:April 17, 1695Mexico CityMexico...(Show more)Notable Works:“First Dream”“Respuesta un Sor Filotea después la Cruz”“The magnificent Narcissus”...(Show more)

Sor Juana Inés después la la cruz was ns poet and scholar whose job-related bridged los periods of the Spanish golden age Baroque and the Enlightenment, the locales of Spain y colonial Mexico, y the philosophies of roman inn Catholicism and of scientific endeavour.


Sor Juana Inés de la la cruz used Baroque format to promote empiricism, Neoplatonism, y Scholasticism. She additionally displayed uno certain feminism, depicting woman as ns seat of reason y knowledge over passion y argued because that greater opportunities for los education of women.


Sor Juana Inés de la cruz is remembered as los first released feminist that the nuevo World (the Americas) and stands together a national icon that Mexico, i beg your pardon commemorated she on ns 200-peso bill. She is recognized for both her superior writing y her influential perspectives on women y scholarship.


Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, initial name Juana Ramírez del Asbaje, (born November 12, 1651?, San michael Nepantla, Viceroyalty of nuevo Spain —died April 17, 1695, Mexico City), poet, dramatist, scholar, y nun, an excellent writer of los Latin americano colonial period and of the Hispanic Baroque.

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Juana Ramírez thirsted because that knowledge desde her more quickly years and throughout her life. As uno female, she had little access come formal education and would be nearly entirely self-taught. Juana to be born el fin of wedlock to ns family that modest method in either mil seiscientos cincuenta y uno or, according to un baptismal certificate, 1648 (there is cuales scholarly agreement on her birth date). Her mommy was ns Creole y her father Spanish. Juana’s mother sent los gifted kid to live with relatives in Mexico City. There she prodigious intelecto attracted los attention of los viceroy, Antonio Sebastián ese Toledo, marquis de Mancera. He invite her to court as ns lady-in-waiting in 1664 and later had her understanding tested through some 40 noted scholars. In 1667, given what she dubbed her “total disinclination to marriage” y her wish “to have alguno fixed occupation which could curtail my liberty to study,” Sor (Spanish: “Sister”) Juana started her life as un nun with uno brief stay in ns order of the Discalced Carmelites. She moved in mil seiscientos sesenta y nueve to ns more lenient Convent of santa Paula of los Hieronymite order in Mexico City, and there she took her vows. Sor Juana continued to be cloistered in the Convent of papá noel Paula for los rest of her life.

Convent life afforded Sor Juana her own apartment, hora to study y write, y the opportunity to teach music y drama to los girls in santa Paula’s school. She likewise functioned as los convent’s archivist y accountant. In her convent cell, Sor Juana amassed one of the largest personal libraries in the nuevo World, together with a collection that musical and scientific instruments. She to be able to continue her contact con other scholars and powerful members of los court. Los patronage of ns viceroy y vicereine of new Spain, significantly that of los marquis y marquise ese la Laguna from 1680 to 1688, helped her preserve her exceptional freedom. They visited her, favoured her, y had she works released in Spain. For her part, Sor Juana, despite cloistered, became los unofficial court poet in los 1680s. She plays in verse, occasional poetry, commissioned religious services, and writings for estado festivals all added magnificently to ns world outside ns convent.

Sor Juana’s success in the colonia milieu and her enduring definition are early at the very least in component to her mastery that the lleno range that poetic forms and themes of los Spanish gold Age. She to be the final great writer of ns Hispanic Baroque and the an initial great exemplar of colonial Mexican culture. Her writings display ns boundless inventiveness of Lope de Vega, the wit and wordplay that Francisco después Quevedo, ns dense erudition y strained syntax of Luis del Góngora, and the schematic abstraction that Pedro Calderón después la Barca. Sor Juana employed every of the poetic models climate in fashion, including sonnets, romances (ballad form), y so on. She attracted on ns vast cuota of Classical, biblical, philosophical, and mythological sources. She composed moral, satiric, y religious lyrics, along con many poems of praise to court figures. Though it is difficult to day much of she poetry, that is clean that, even after she became a nun, Sor Juana wrote secular love lyrics. Her breadth the range—from the serious to the comical y the scholarly to the popular—is equally inexplicable for uno nun. Sor Juana writer both allegorical spiritual dramas and entertaining cloak-and-dagger plays. Notablemente in the extendido vein are the villancicos (carols) the she created to it is in sung in the cathedrals the Mexico City, Puebla, and Oaxaca. Sor Juana was as prolific together she was encyclopaedic. The authoritative modern edition of her complete works, edited through Alfonso Méndez Plancarte and Alberto G. Salceda, operation to four prolonged volumes.


Sor Juana put her own stamp top top Spanish 17th-century literature. Every of los nun’s poetry, yet densely Baroque, exhibits she characteristically reparado logic. Her thoughtful poems deserve to carry ns Baroque layout of los deceptiveness of appearances into un defense the empiricism that borders on enlightenment reasoning. Sor Juana commemorated woman as los seat that reason y knowledge fairly than passion. Her famed poem “Hombres necios” (“Foolish Men”) accuses males of los illogical behaviour that they criticize in women. Her countless love poems in the first person admitir a woman’s desengaño (disillusionment) with love, given ns strife, pain, jealousy, y loneliness the it occasions. Various other first-person poems have actually an apparent autobiographical element, handle with the burdens of fame y intellect. Sor Juana’s most significant full-length plays involve ns actions the daring, ingenious women. Sor Juana additionally occasionally created of her native Mexico. Los short juego that introduces she religious jugar El divino Narciso (1689; The divine Narcissus, in a bilingual edition) blends ns Aztec y Christian religions. Her miscellaneous carols contain an funny mix that Nahuatl (a mexican Indian language) and Hispano-African y Spanish dialects.

Sor Juana’s many important y most daunting poem, known as ns Primero sueño (1692; First Dream, released in A Sor Juana Anthology, 1988), is both personal y universal. Ns date that its composing is unknown. The employs ns convoluted poetic creates of the Baroque come recount los torturous pursuit of the alma for knowledge. In the poem’s opening, together night falls, the soul is unchained desde the human body to dream. Over the course of los night’s dreaming, the soul attempts unsuccessfully come gain enteramente knowledge through following ns philosophical paths of Neoplatonism and Scholasticism. Together the sun rises and routs the night, the dream fades y the body awakens, however the alma determines to persist in its efforts. The last lines of ns poem express to ns female “I,” i beg your pardon associates ns foregoing quest con its author. In fact, ns entire 975-line poem, thick con erudition, attests to ns nun’s lifelong quest of learning.

The prodigiously accomplished Sor Juana achieved considerable renown in Mexico and in Spain. With renown came disapproval representar church officials. Sor Juana broke with her Jesuit confessor, Antonio Núñez del Miranda, in los early 1680s because he had publicly maligned her. The nun’s privileged situation began definitively to collapse delaware the leave for Spain of her protectors, ns marquis y marquise del la Laguna. In November 1690, manual Fernández ese Santa Cruz, bishop the Puebla, released without Sor Juana’s permission she critique of ns 40-year-old sermon by ns Portuguese Jesuit preacher António Vieira. Fernández después Santa cruz entitled los critique Carta atenagórica (“Letter Worthy of Athena”). Using ns female pseudonym that Sister Filotea, he likewise admonished Sor Juana to concentration on religious rather 보다 secular studies.

Sor Juana responded to the bishop of Puebla in March mil seiscientos noventa y uno with her magnificent self-defense y defense of every women’s right to knowledge, los Respuesta un sor Filotea ese la Cruz (“Reply to Sister Filotea of ns Cross”; interpreted in A Sor Juana Anthology, 1988). In los autobiographical ar of ns document, Sor Juana traces los many obstacles that her powerful “inclination to letters” had compelled her come surmount throughout she life. Among los obstacles she discusses is having been temporarily forbidden by uno prelate to read, which caused her to study instead “everything the God has created, all of it being my letters.” Sor Juana famously remarks, quoting one Aragonese poet y also echoing St. Teresa of Ávila: “One deserve to perfectly fine philosophize while food preparation supper.” She justifies her examine of “human arts and sciences” as essential to know sacred theology. In her defense of education and learning for women in general, Sor Juana lists as models learned ladies of biblical, Classical, and contemporary times. She uses ns words that Church Fathers such as St. Jerome y St. Paul, bending castle to her purposes, to argue that women are entitled to exclusive instruction. Throughout ns Respuesta, Sor Juana concedes some emplea failings however remains strong in supporting her larger cause. Similarly, in ns same year that 1691, Sor Juana wrote for los cathedral that Oaxaca part exquisite carol to St. Catherine of Alexandria that sing ns praises that this learned woman and martyr.

Yet by 1694 Sor Juana had succumbed in some measure to external or inner pressures. She curtailed she literary pursuits. She library y collections were marketed for alms. She returned to her previous confessor, fix up her spiritual vows, y signed various penitential documents. Sor Juana passed away while nursing her sister nuns during an epidemic.

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Her story y accomplishments, however, have actually helped her live on. She currently stands as a país icon that Mexico y Mexican identity; her former cloister is uno centre for higher education, and her photo adorns mexico currency. Since of rising interest in feminism y women’s writing, Sor Juana came to new prominence in ns late 20th century as ns first published feminist of the new World and as the most exceptional writer of los Spanish american colonial period. Un woman the genius who, come paraphrase nombre de niña Woolf’s renowned recommendation for los female author, succeeded under hostile scenarios in creating uno “room of she own,” Sor Juana continues to be avidly read and deeply systematic to the present day.